“I may have the genetic coding that I’m inclined to be an alcoholic, but I have the desire not to do that – and I look at the homosexual issue the same way”

(Rick Perry, Governor of Texas)

So, if I understand Perry’s point, he may have a genetic inclination to be gay but he forces himself “not to do that”?

Judge Rolf Treu has ruled that teachers’ tenure violates California students’ constitutional right to an education.

The California Constitution, which I am now reading for the first time, has an entire section on education (also, an entire section on water), it specifically mandates state funding for the University of California, and it states, right at the beginning, a fundamental right to privacy. (Using the word “privacy,” which does not occur in the US constitution.) Yay California Constitution!

Back to Judge Treu, he has found that the right to an education implies a right to good teachers, and that tenure causes students to have bad teachers. Hence tenure is unconstitutional. Also the bad teachers disproportionally end up in districts with poor and minority students, so tenure is unconstitutional also on equal protection grounds. I am now looking forward to conservative California judges striking down other laws and regulations that affect the educational opportunities of poor and minority students, including prop 209.

I have always known that I don’t completely understand how fiat money works, however I have recently realized that I don’t understand it at all! Maybe some of my readers can clarify my confusion.

So let’s start a national economy from scratch, without international trade: so a group of people move to a deserted island, declare independence, the people have all kind of skills, they bring all kind of materials and machineries with them, the island has all kinds of natural resources and maybe a lottery system gives some people ownership of various plots of lands and mining rights.

Now some would-be entrepreneurs would like to begin hiring people with the right skills, buying or renting various stuff, and start some businesses. It seems that there is no loss of generality if I think of the entrepreneurs as just one person for the sake of what I want to think about. She is going to need to get a loan to start her business(es). Meanwhile, the new island government created a central bank, which issues theory dollars, or thollars, which are the currency of the island. The central bank “creates” thollars and lends them to banks, then the banks keep a fractional reserve and lend to the entrepreneur. Again, for the sake of what I want to say, there is no loss of generality if I identify the central bank and the other banks as just one entity.

So the central bank lends thollars to the entrepreneur, and she uses the money to start the business and being to pay people. At this point money starts circulating in the economy, and people will hire gardeners and babysitters, and lawyers, they will give to charities, they will hire computer science theory tutors for their kids, they will buy and sell houses to each others, and, crucially, will buy whatever goods and services the entrepreneur is selling. Now she is making a profit and she can pay back the loan to the central bank and invest in more … wait, she can never pay back the loan!

That’s because all the thollars in circulation are the ones that the central bank lent her, so there is no way that, as the money circulates, she can ever make more money that she owes!

Ok, so maybe people will also take loans to buy houses and stuff, so that’s more money that circulates, but is it really the case that, overall, it is impossible for everybody to be debt-free? That all the cash that any debt-free person has needs to be compensated by an equivalent amount of debt from other people? This is not how things seem to be in practice.

Now, clearly it is possible for everybody to have positive net worth, because, at the start, people have stuff and that stuff is worth money, but it seems strange that not everybody can be debt-free.

Maybe the problem is deflation? That if the entrepreneur borrowed money to create a business that creates new wealth (because it makes stuff that people find more valuable than the value of the raw material and the value of the work that went into it), but the amount of circulating money stays the same, then there is deflation, and her debt is spiraling out of control in deflation-adjusted terms, even if the interest rate is zero?

It seems that there are only two ways in which you can have everybody be debt-free and have a positive amount of cash: (i) the central bank starts buying stocks of private companies, (ii) the government runs a deficit, and the central bank buys government debt.

Is this correct? Normally, we think of people and companies being debt-free (or having more cash than debt) as ideal, and a government running no deficit as ideal, and usually central banks don’t buy stocks (they only buy bonds, which is formally equivalent to lending), so are these three conditions contradictory?

Where you least expect them:

a common [definiton] for “population” is a geographical cluster of people who mate more within the cluster than outside of it

As you may remember, a few months ago Dieter van Melkebeek, the steering committee chair of the conference on computational complexity, started a discussion on the future of the conference and on its relation to IEEE.

A poll among CCC former participants showed that 97% of respondents favored change, and a majority wanted the conference to be independent of both IEEE and ACM. The steering committee, subsequently, voted unanimously to make the conference independent.

The steering committee is now working out the logistics, and volunteers are needed to help. Already several people have pledged to contribute in various forms, and if you are interested there will be organizational meetings in Vancouver during CCC 2014. (By the way, today is the deadline for early registration.)

I would like to publicly thank Dieter both for the effort that he put on making this change happen and for the transparency of the process. I hope that, if some big change is coming for STOC or FOCS, it will be the result of a similarly open discussion.

IMG_2614

The great earthquake of 1906 struck San Francisco on April 18, around 5 in the morning. While the earthquake already caused a lot of damage, it was the subsequent fire that ravaged the city: the earthquake had broken the water pipes, and so it was impossible to fight the fire because the hydrants were not working. Except for the hydrant at Church and 20th, which saved my house and a good part of the mission. The hydrant is painted golden, and once a year, on the anniversary of the earthquake, the fire department repaints it and leaves a token of appreciation. (They actually do it at 5 in the morning.)

By the way, there are two faults that can cause earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. One is (our stretch of) the San Andreas fault, which runs close to the ocean, and which caused the 1906 quake and the 1989 one, and which may not be an imminent risk given the energy released in 1989. The other is the Hayward fault, which runs near Berkeley. The Hayward fault had big earthquakes in 1315, 1470, 1630, 1725, and 1868, that is about every 100-140 years, with the last one being 146 years ago…

tiananmen

25 years ago on April 15, Hu Yaobang died. The day before his funeral, about 100,000 people marched to Tiananmen square, an event that led to the occupation of the square, and which culminated in what in mainland China used to be referred to as the “June 4 events,” and now as the “I don’t know what you are talking about” events.

Also, something happened, according to tradition, 1981 years ago.

I was having dinner at Machne Yuda, that was recommended to me as one of the best places to eat in Jerusalem (although I liked Chakra much better), and I was sitting at the bar, cramped between the French gay couple and the drunk Israeli lady with the huge boyfriend.

At the same time that I got my dessert, the lady with the huge boyfriend stood up to leave and, with remarkable swiftness for a drunk lady, took a piece of my cake asking, while she was already doing so, if she could try it.

Now, between the fact of the ground that a piece of my cake was already on her fork, the size of the boyfriend, the fate of the last people who tried to fight with the Israeli about what is whose and, really, haven’t the Jewish people suffered enough already?, the only logical thing to say was, sure, help yourself.

A little bit later, the bartender presented me with another (different) dessert. “This is on the house,” the bartender said, “I saw what she did, and it wasn’t right.”

The second dessert was better.

Dieter van Melkebeek, the conference chair of the Computational Complexity Conference (CCC), has started a discussion on whether to end the IEEE “sponsorship” of CCC. This is, I realize, a supremely boring topic, which seemingly affects only the handful of people who are tasked with organizing the conference. It does, however, affect to some extent all who ever paid a registration fee or published a paper in CCC, and I would like to discuss why I am, in the strongest possible way, in favor of leaving IEEE.

First of all, the term “sponsoring” here is a bit misleading. IEEE sponsors CCC not in the way Coca Cola sponsors the Olympics, but more in the way pirates sponsor navigation, or Elsevier sponsors scholarly publications. That is, it’s not that IEEE subsidizes the conference in exchange for exposure and good will; IEEE takes a huge chunk of our registration money, in exchange for making the lives of the local organizers harder. (I don’t mean to single out IEEE, when a professional society sponsors a conference it always works this way, but IEEE is particularly skilled at making the lives of the organizers hard.)

Last year I was an organizer of the complexity conference at Stanford. We had 108 attendees, who paid a total of $37,425 of registrations, or $346.5 each on average. How did we spend this money?

IEEE charged a 20% overhead to all expenses; that’s about $60 per person and about $6,500 for the whole conference. This, I should emphasize, is for doing literally nothing, except creating problems. For example, our conference could not be “approved” until all the paperwork of the previous conference was closed; it wasn’t closed because they were expecting some banking documents from them and I don’t remember if the issue was that the document does not exist in Portugal, or that they had already received the document and they had lost it. We were not allowed to make the conference web site go live until this was resolved.

One of the perks of organizing the conference with IEEE is that they provide free banking in the United States. (If the conference were organized by a created-for-this-purpose non-profit, it could have its own permanent bank account for little or no fee.) Three weeks after we sent all the paperwork to have our IEEE bank account set up, we get an email from the person we paid $6,500 to “assist” us, saying “URGENT, URGENT, you have to send us the paperwork for the bank account”. After we reminded them that they had had it for three weeks, they replied, “oh yes, we do,” no apology. (And it still took a while to get the checks.)

The free banking does not include free registration handling, however. Here I accept responsibility for being foolish enough, after all this, to trust IEEE with their registration service. At a cost of more than $26 per person (that’s almost $3,000) they produced a registration website that seemed put together by a high school intern, and which required filling up five pages of… well, if you attended the conference you remember it.

Finally, IEEE press charged almost $2,000 (almost $18 per person) for the proceedings. Which proceedings, you may ask, since the conference had no proceedings? That’s a very good question. The charge of $1,925 was to take our papers, take the copyright, and then put the papers were it is impossible to find them, even if you subscribe to the IEEE digital library. (Seriously, try to google a paper appeared in an ACM conference and one appeared in an IEEE conference and see if you are able to get the IEEE paper. Say what you want about the ACM, at least they know how to build a web site.)

In summary, IEEE took $6,500 for doing nothing but causing delays, $3,000 for a terrible registration site, and $2,000 to hide our papers. That’s more than $100 per attendee, and about 30% of how we spent the registration fee. The rest went on food and room rent.

Why are we still doing this? One reason is that the only people that are really affected by this system are the local organizers, and once one is done with the job, one doesn’t want to hear of or talk about IEEE any more. The other reason is that there is a big initial effort that is needed to make the conference independent. One needs to start some kind of entity to own the conference (the IACR, for example, was founded pretty much for the purpose of running CRYPTO and the other crypto conferences), which needs to have a statute, officers, a bank account and all kind of paperwork needs to be done. After that, however, it’s smooth sailing and considerable savings.

Here is one thing that IEEE does: if the conference runs a deficit, they cover it. We did, in fact run a deficit last year, of about $1,000; so IEEE “covered” it, but that just means that instead of $6,500 for the “sponsorship” they got $5,500. If, going forward, we budget with the intention of putting away $5,000 to $7,000 per year, the registration costs will go down slightly and over a few years we can put away, say $20,000 that can be a cushion for any kind of unforeseen event, and from that point forward budget to a balanced budget, with notably lower registration fees, and with some years running a surplus and some years running a deficit. Plus, we own our papers, and people can find them!

Ok, this is as boring as could be expected. I thank all those that have read so far, and, for the sanity of future local organizers and the principle of keeping our hard-earned taxpayer money and our papers, please support making CCC an independent conference.

Link to CCC forum

大展鴻圖

I would like to pass along the following piece of information that I received from Tal Rabin: the next bi-annual Women in Theory Workshop will be this May 28-30, 2014, in New York City, immediately preceding STOC 2014, which will also take place there.

Applications are due by January 20, 2014.

The relevant information is at womenintheory.wordpress.com

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