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** Summary **

In the last lecture we described a very complex signature scheme based on one-time signatures and pseudorandom functions. Unfortunately there is no known simple and efficient signature scheme which is existentially unforgeable under a chosen message attack under general assumptions.

Today we shall see a very simple scheme based on RSA which is secure in the *random oracle model*. In this model, all parties have oracle access to a random function . In implementations, this random function is replaced by a cryptographic hash function. Unfortunately, the proof of security we shall see today breaks down when the random oracle is replaced by hash function, but at least the security in the random oracle model gives some heuristic confidence in the design soundness of the construction.

*Scribed by Guoming Wang*

** Summary **

Today we show how to construct an efficient CCA-secure public-key encryption scheme in the *random oracle model* using RSA.

As we discussed in the previous lecture, a cryptographic scheme defined in the *random oracle model* is allowed to use a random function which is known to all the parties. In an implementation, usually a cryptographic hash function replaces the random oracle. In general, the fact that a scheme is proved secure in the random oracle model does not imply that it is secure when the random oracle is replaced by a hash function; the proof of security in the random oracle model gives, however, at least some heuristic confidence in the soundness of the design.

** Summary **

Today we show how to construct an efficient CCA-secure public-key encryption scheme in the *random oracle model* using RSA.

As we discussed in the previous lecture, a cryptographic scheme defined in the *random oracle model* is allowed to use a random function which is known to all the parties. In an implementation, usually a cryptographic hash function replaces the random oracle. In general, the fact that a scheme is proved secure in the random oracle model does not imply that it is secure when the random oracle is replaced by a hash function; the proof of security in the random oracle model gives, however, at least some heuristic confidence in the soundness of the design.

** Summary **

In the last lecture we described a very complex signature scheme based on one-time signatures and pseudorandom functions. Unfortunately there is no known simple and efficient signature scheme which is existentially unforgeable under a chosen message attack under general assumptions.

Today we shall see a very simple scheme based on RSA which is secure in the *random oracle model*. In this model, all parties have oracle access to a random function . In implementations, this random function is replaced by a cryptographic hash function. Unfortunately, the proof of security we shall see today breaks down when the random oracle is replaced by hash function, but at least the security in the random oracle model gives some heuristic confidence in the design soundness of the construction.

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