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Today it’s my favorite of Italy’s public holidays.
To keep a long story long, at the start of WW2, Italy, which was an ally of Germany, was initially neutral, in part because its armed forces were completely unprepared for war. At some point in the May of 1940, with German troops advancing into France, and British troops evacuating the continent, Italy decided to join what looked like a soon-to-end war, in order to claim some French territories and colonies.
But then, in 1941, Germany attacked Russia and Japan attacked the US, underestimating what they were getting into, and by the beginning of 1943 the tide was clearly turning against the “axis.” Italy’s king, who was definitely not the “fight until the last man” type, had Mussolini arrested, installed a general as prime minister, and started negotiating Italy’s surrender with the allies (even as Italian troops were fighting with the Germans in Russia and in Africa). Eventually, on September 8, 1943, the king announced a cease-fire. Because of the secrecy of the negotiations, nobody knew what was going in advance, and most of the Italian troops that were fighting with the Germans were taken prisoners, while the rest of the armed forces basically disbanded. German troops came into Italy from the North to occupy it, even as allied troops landed in Sicily and took control of most of Southern Italy. The king fled to the South, and the Germans freed Mussolini and installed him as head of a puppet government in the North.
With the Italian army disbanded, and with the allies neglecting the “Southern front” in Italy as they were plotting the landing in Normandy, guerilla groups were formed in Northern Italy to fight the Germans. Eventually, in April 1945 the German troops were retreating from the Eastern and Western fronts against the advancing American and Russian forces, and the allied made another push in Italy; concurrently, the resistance organizations planned an insurrection that, on April 25, liberated Torino and Milan. All the German forces in Italy surrendered on April 29.
The resistance was the training ground of some of the first generation of politicians of the new Italian Republic (a referendum to abolish the monarchy passed in 1946, and a new Republican constitution was approved in 1948), and it brought people who were willing to die for their ideals into politics. That spirit didn’t last very long, but it remains one of the few bright spots in recent Italian history.
Now that the Winter break is coming, what to read in between decorating, cooking, eating, drinking and being merry?
The most exciting theoretical computer science development of the year was the improved efficiency of matrix multiplication by Stother and Vassilevska-Williams. Virginia’s 72-page write-up will certainly keep many people occupied.
Terence Tao is teaching a class on expanders, and posting the lecture notes, of exceptional high quality. It is hard to imagine something that would a more awesome combination, to me, than Terry Tao writing about expanders. Maybe a biopic on Turing’s life, starring Joseph Gordon-Levitt, written by Dustin Lance Black and directed by Clint Eastwood.
Now that I have done my part, you do yours. If I wanted to read a couple of books (no math, no theory) during the winter, what would you recommend. Don’t recommend what you think I would like, recommend what you like best, and why.
A couple of notes:
- Among other things, I love the lucite string instruments, and the white sofa briefly seen around 1:25;
- Why is Bad Romance transliterated as 罗曼死 in Chinese, which means dead Roman?
- There is a whole blog devoted to this performance.
Although I was disappointed that, this year, the MacArthur foundation did not recognize any theoretical computer scientist or pure mathematician, I was delighted that Peter Hessler is one of this year’s fellows.
Hessler used to be the New Yorker’s correspondent from China, and he wrote a number of extraordinary articles from there. His masterpiece is probably the one about getting a Chinese driver’s license, which became the starting point of a book. Last year, he moved back to America, to Colorado, and wrote a great article about moving (as unlikely as that sounds), and he has been reporting from Colorado since.
The basics of great non-fiction storytelling are having a good story and telling it well. Surely, Hessler can write, but what about the stories themselves? Living in a hutong, getting a driver’s license, traveling alone in the Chinese countryside, and so on, are all ways to make interesting things happen, but a story is more than a series of interesting things that happened. Indeed, interesting things happen to all of us all the time, but it takes a rare sensibility to recognize the meaningfulness of small details and seemingly mundane events, which is where Hessler excels (see his article in this week’s New Yorker’s about a pharmacist in Colorado).
Those who read in theory probably also read Claire Mathieu‘s blog. Claire has this ability to an uncanny degree. If she was not so brilliant and successful as a computer scientist, I would say that it’s a waste that she is not a writer. If you are not familiar with her blog, read this post about squeezing toothpaste, and you’ll see what I mean.
When I decided to move, I was very impressed by Stanford’s computer science department’s plan to hire a new complexity theorist every other year, so that the department would be entirely composed of complexity theorists by 2100.
So far we are on track, and I am very excited to welcome our new colleague Ryan Williams.
In a demonstration of impeccable taste, ACM bestowed this year’s Turing Award on Leslie Valiant, for several contributions, including the development of computational learning theory (the foundational theory of machine learning) and of a theory about the complexity of combinatorial counting problems.
It is also notable that the Knuth Prize maintains a perfect record at predicting future Turing awards for theory.