*[I am preparing a survey talk on Unique Games for a mathematics conference, and writing a survey paper for a booklet that will be distributed at the conference. My first instinct was to write a one-line paper that would simply refer to Subhash’s own excellent survey paper. Fearing that I might come off as lazy, I am instead writing my own paper. Here are some fragments. Comments are very welcome.]*

**1. Why is the Unique Games Conjecture Useful **

In a previous post we stated the Unique Games Conjecture and made the following informal claim, here rephrased in abbreviated form:

*To reduce Label Cover to a graph optimization problem like Max Cut, we map variables to collections of vertices and we map equations to collections of edges; then we show how to “encode” assignments to variables as 2-colorings of vertices which cut a fraction of edges, and finally (this is the hardest part of the argument) we show that given a 2-coloring that cuts a fraction of edges, then *

- the given 2-coloring must be somewhat “close” to a 2-coloring coming from the encoding of an assignment and
- if we “decode” the given 2-coloring to an assignment to the variables, such an assignment satisfies a noticeable fraction of equations.

Starting our reduction from a Unique Game instead of a Label Cover problem, we only need to prove (1) above, and (2) more or less follows for free.

To verify this claim, we “axiomatize” the properties of a reduction that only achieves (1): we describe a reduction mapping a single variable to a graph, such that assignments to the variable are mapped to good cuts, and somewhat good cuts can be mapped back to assignments to the variable. The reader can then go back to our analysis of the Max Cut inapproximability proof in the previous post, and see that the properties below are sufficient to implement the reduction.